Footnotes

Links to footnotes within essays are embedded into the period at the end of each sentence in which a footnote occurs. This was done to eliminate excess visual clutter and the linespacing problems posed by the use of superscript. If the reader wants to know the source of the information within any sentence, try the period for a link. Mousing over the link will cause a tooltip to appear.

Arabic, Persian and Turkish words in italics are defined on their first appearance in the text. (Please let me know if it isn't so!)

All Quranic quotations are taken from from The Message of the Qur'an, translated by Muhammad Asad.

Passages identified as "Rumi, Mathnawi" are from R.A. Nicholson's translation, subsequently adapted into contemporary language by the author.

Check those references!

  1. Fragner, p. 52, 59
  2. Bukhari 73:9
  3. Tirmidhi, in Mishkat 24:1
  4. Bukhari 72:21
  5. Ibn Majah, in Mishkat 20:1
  6. Bukhari LXV:304
  7. Quoted in Perry (1990), p. 162
  8. Rumi, Mathnawi IV:2669-71
  9. Suhrawardi, p. 59
  10. Ghazzali, "The Propensity of Hunger"
  11. Rumi, translated by Amer Latif and Kathleen Seidel
  12. Bukhari 73:9
  13. Rumi, Mathnawi I:3873,6
  14. From a talk by Tosun Bayrak, 2/10/96
  15. Bukhari 72:21
  16. Rumi, translated by Amer Latif and Kathleen Seidel
  17. Nurbaksh (1978), p. 4
  18. Tirmidhi, in Mishkat
  19. Ibn AtaAllah al-Iskandari, p. 75
  20. Ibn Arabi (1992), p. 5
  21. Arberry, p. 236
  22. Suhrawardi, p. 58
  23. Abdel Kader, p. 9
  24. Nasr, pp. 69-70
  25. Rumi, translated by Amer Latir and Kathleen Seidel
  26. Attar, pp. 101, 111
  27. Attar, p. 44
  28. Abdel Kader, p. 15
  29. Rumi, Mathnawi III:30
  30. Nasr, pp. 72-3
  31. Rumi, translated by Amer Latif and Kathleen Seidel
  32. Suhrawardi, p. 58
  33. Rumi, Rumi Daylight, p. 129
  34. Rumi, Mathnawi I:726
  35. Hujviri, p. 317; Nizamuddin Auliya, p. 312
  36. Nizamuddin Auliya, p. 312
  37. Ezekiel, p. 315, adapted
  38. Ibn Arabi, Sufis of Andalusia, p. 129-30
  39. Hujviri, p. 347
  40. Ibn AtaAllah al-Iskandari, p. 48
  41. Murata and Chittick, p. 304
  42. Murata and Chittick, p. 306
  43. Sulami, pp. 38-42
  44. Hujviri, pp. 341-2,
  45. Suhrawardi, pp. 51-59, 77
  46. Hakim Sana'i, translated by Amer Latif and Kathleen Seidel. Another version of this passage can be found at Sana'i, pp. 25-6
  47. Mishkat 20:1
  48. Abu Dawud 27:3764
  49. Ibn Majah, in Mishkat 20:1
  50. Nurbaksh (1978), pp. 75-6
  51. Nizamuddin Auliya, p. 236
  52. Bhajjan, p. 106
  53. Rumi, Mathnawi II:380
  54. Birge, p. 198, and Trix, pp. 6, 9, 134-149 on Bektashi Order; Cem Williford, personal communication, on Rufai Order; Nurbaksh, p. 84, on Nimatullahi Order
  55. Algar (1991), p. 295
  56. Rumi, Mathnawi V:2012
  57. Murata, p. 228
  58. Murata, pp. 82-84
  59. Ibn Batuta (1984), pp. 195-6
  60. Massignon, v.1, p. 113
  61. Sharda, p. 92
  62. Trimingham, p. 6
  63. Karrar, p. 164
  64. Ibn al-Arabi (1981), p. 31
  65. Quoted in Schimmel (1975), p. 117
  66. Hujviri, p. 347
  67. Ghazzali, "The Propensity of Hunger"
  68. Jamnia, p. 35
  69. Nicholson, p. 36
  70. Hujviri, p. 346
  71. Nicholson, p. 46; Schimmel (1975), pp. 242-243
  72. Abdel Kader, pp. 29, 48, 50
  73. Currie, p. 29
  74. Currie, pp. 62, 70
  75. Vett, p. 64
  76. Sufi Spiritual Techniques, pp. 20-21
  77. Trimingham, p. 223
  78. Karrar, pp. 139-40; McHugh, pp. 61-2, 86
  79. McHugh, p. 62
  80. Nasir-i Khusraw, p. 77
  81. Ibn al-Arabi (1992), pp. 95, 107, 104, 108
  82. Hujwiri, p. 392
  83. Birge, p. 102
  84. Author's rendition
  85. Schimmel (1975), pp. 334-5, adapted
  86. Rumi, Mathnawi II:1452-1560
  87. Rumi, Mathnawi II:1524-29
  88. Bukhari
  89. Adapted from Nurbaksh (1983), p. 49; Upton, p. 32
  90. Adapted from Garnett, p. 9-10
  91. Adapted from Knappert, pp. 326-7
  92. Adapted from Ezekiel, pp. 16-7
  93. Sa'di, p. 92, adapted
  94. Rumi, Mathnawi III:1285
  95. Rumi, translated by Amer Latif and Kathleen Seidel
  96. Tikku, p. 173
  97. Tikku, p. 24
  98. Rumi, Mathnawi I:3686
  99. Rumi, Mathnawi II:2428
  100. Yunus Emre, p. 66
  101. Sharda, p. 114
  102. Shushud, p. 18
  103. Arberry, p. 238
  104. al-Ansari, p. 29
  105. Rumi, translated by Amer Latif and Kathleen Seidel
  106. Yunus Emre, p. 21
  107. Trimingham, p. 189
  108. Algar (1991), p. 297
  109. Birge, p. 178
  110. Rumi, Divan-i Kebir, Meter 1, p. 221
  111. Rumi, Mathnawi I:838-9
  112. From a talk by Tosun Bayrak, 10 February 1996
  113. For a detailed discussion of the qualities of specific foods, and the science of their metabolic values in Eastern medicine, see Moinuddin, pp. 39-64.
  114. Rumi, Mathnawi VI:1212-18
  115. Rumi, Mathnawi V:780-3,7
  116. Birge, p. 175
  117. Smith, p. 403
  118. Smith, p. 403
  119. Tosun Bayrak, personal communication
  120. Algar (1991), pp. 298-9
  121. Algar (1991), p. 299
  122. Bhajjan, p. 99
  123. Trimingham, p. 23
  124. Sunan Abu Dawud, 27:37-40
  125. Trimingham, p. 177
  126. Baldick, p. 260
  127. Baldick, p. 129
  128. Ozturk, p. 103
  129. Geijbels, p. 24
  130. Currie, pp. 105, 122-23
  131. McChesney, p. 131
  132. Martin, pp. 295-6
  133. Faroqhi (1986), p. 104
  134. Hoffman,
  135. Seabrook, pp. 236-41. (For another example of Mevlevi hospitality, see Luke, pp. 29-31.)
  136. Rumi, translated by Amer Latif and Kathleen Seidel
  137. Vambery, p. 99
  138. Ozturk, p. 66
  139. Mishkat-al-Masabih, pp. 402-419; 642
  140. Rumi, Mathnawi III:2895
  141. Nasir-I Khusraw (1977), p. 58
  142. Tirmidhi, in Mishkat 20
  143. Bukhari 65:368
  144. Mishkat, p. 424
  145. Inayat Khan, Gayan, p. 48
  146. Garnett, p. 87
  147. Algar (1991), p. 299
  148. From Shaikh Huseyn Top, Istanbul
  149. Abraham the hospitable
  150. Suhrawardi, p. 58
  151. Adapted from Birge, p. 167
  152. Garnett, p. 87
  153. Algar (1991), p. 299
  154. Algar (1991), p. 299
  155. Rumi, Mathnawi IV:345
  156. Tuareg proverb, quoted in Wolfert (1973), p. 50
  157. Rumi, Mathnawi III:3588
  158. Hale, p. 645
  159. Roden (1970), p. 363
  160. Rumi, Mathnawi I:3165
  161. Rumi, Mathnawi I:2003-5
  162. Rumi, Mathnawi II:1344
  163. Rumi, Mathnawi III:3287-8
  164. Visser (1986), p. 63
  165. Yunus Emre, p. 63
  166. Visser (1986), p. 67
  167. Massignon, v. 1, p. 517
  168. Ibid
  169. Ibid
  170. Bhajjan, p. 39
  171. Massignon, v. 3, pp. 227-8
  172. Evliya Efendi, 1:2, pp. 93, 95
  173. Evliya Efendi, 1:2, p. 16
  174. Muhammad ibn Ahmad, called Ibn Jubair, p. 299, adapted
  175. Nasir-i Khusraw (1986), pp. 80-1
  176. Nizami, p. 68
  177. Rumi, Mathnawi IV:2354
  178. Rumi, Mathnawi IV:2336-7
  179. Rumi, Mathnawi II:226-8
  180. Hujviri, p. 347
  181. Trimingham, p. 184; Arnakis, p. 240
  182. Algar (1992), p. 197
  183. Nurbaksh (1978), p. 84
  184. Evliya Efendi, 1:2, pp. 120-22, adapted
  185. Rumi, Mathnawi II:2932
  186. Rumi, translated by Amer Latif and Kathleen Seidel
  187. Rumi, Mathnawi III:1971
  188. Bhajjan, p. 92
  189. Nasir-i Khusraw (1977), p. 50
  190. Ezekiel, p. 319
  191. From a talk by Tosun Bayrak, 2/10/96
  192. Rumi, Mathnawi III:430-1
  193. Eaton, p. 163
  194. Eaton, pp. 161, 163
  195. Rumi, Divan-I-Kebir, 981:1, adapted
  196. Algar (1992), p. 301
  197. Sunan Abu Dawud 27:3747
  198. Muslim, in Mishkat, p. 411
  199. Faroqhi (1984), pp. 210-215
  200. Schimmel (1993), p. 140
  201. Perry (1983), pp. 11-22
  202. Perry, "Tasting the Silk Road"
  203. Perry, in Food in Motion, p. 15
  204. Schimmel (1982), p. 118
  205. Evliya 1:2, p. 151
  206. Buitelaar, pp. 58-59, 179
  207. Rumi, Mathnawi V:1378-80
  208. From a talk by Tosun Bayrak, 2/10/96
  209. Karrar, p. 164; al-Attas, p. 66
  210. Ibn al Arabi (1981), p. 81
  211. Ezekiel, pp. 412-3
  212. Muhaiyaddeen (n.d.) preface; (1979), pp. 181-2
  213. Inayat Khan (1963), p. 298; (1982), pp. 213-215
  214. Ibn Arabi, Sufis of Andalusia, p. 131
  215. Shaida, p. 150
  216. Rumi, Mathnawi V:2902
  217. Rumi, Mathnawi I:2601
  218. Bhajjan, p. 77
  219. Sa'di, p. 125, adapted
  220. Nasir-I Khusraw, p. 61
  221. Rumi, Mathnawi V:3250
  222. Ahmad Sirhindi, v. 1, p. 313; tr. by C. Eroglu
  223. Gonul Cengiz, personal communication
  224. Nizamuddin Auliya, p. 123
  225. Hussam Ayin, in Mevlevi Ayins, p. 16
  226. Adapted from Sufi Thought and Action, p. 213
  227. Hakim Bey, Communique: Special Holiday Food Issue: Turn off the Lite!
  228. Rumi, Mathnawi V:2486-7, translated by Amer Latif and Kathleen Seidel
  229. Rumi, Mathnawi III:460
  230. Evliya, 2:71
  231. Ibn Batuta (1929)
  232. Salah, p. 115
  233. Farid al-Din Attar, p. 37
  234. Rumi, Divan-I Kebir, Meter 1, p. 144
  235. Adapted from National Cuisine
  236. Ezekiel, p. 72
  237. Rumi, Signs of the Unseen, p. 8
  238. Bukhari LXV 363
  239. Rumi, Mathnawi I:3195-7
  240. Ata'Allah, p. 71
  241. Rumi, Mathnawi IV:3421
  242. Rumi, Mathnawi III:4159-4211
  243. Nizamuddin Auliya, p. 169, adapted
  244. Rumi, Mathnawi II:860
  245. Rumi, Mathnawi III:1895-7
  246. Rumi, Mathnawi I:818
  247. Abdel Kader, p. 173
  248. Sa'di, p. 110
  249. Evliya, 1:2, 149
  250. Rumi, Mathnawi V:3459-60
  251. Dagher
  252. Rumi, quoted in Schimmel (1993), p. 140
  253. Rumi, Mathnawi V:2399-2401
  254. Abdulrakhim Aitbayev, personal communication
  255. Adapted from National Cuisine
  256. Rumi, Mathnawi VI:4399-4400, translated by Amer Latif and Kathleen Seidel)
  257. Rumi, Divan-I Kebir, Meter 2, p. 105
  258. Rumi, Mathnawi I:3058
  259. Rumi, Mathnawi I:718, 721
  260. Rumi, Magnificent One, p. 16
  261. Dagher
  262. Bukhari LXV:330
  263. Rumi, Mathnawi VI:718-22
  264. Nizamuddin Auliya, p. 284
  265. Visser, p. 32
  266. Ashraf, p. 124
  267. Quoted in Nurbaksh (1988), p. 117
  268. Geijbels, p. 21
  269. Rumi, Mathnawi IV:3005-6
  270. Bhajjan, p. 111
  271. Rumi, Mathnawi V: 300
  272. Rumi, Divan-I Kebir, Meter 1, p. 260
  273. Muhaiyaddeen (1979), pp. 145-6
  274. Inayat Khan, Mysticism, p. 212
  275. Inayat Khan, Philosophy , p. 64
  276. Rumi, Mathnawi V:1743-59
  277. Bhajjan, p. 93
  278. Bukhari 65:331, 344, 347
  279. Rumi, Delicious Laughter, p. 110
  280. Rumi, Mathnawi VI;3669-70
  281. Rumi, Divan-I Kebir, Meter 1, p. 401
  282. Ozak, p. 85
  283. Rumi, Feeling the Shoulder of the Lion, p. 59
  284. Feild, pp. 71-73
  285. Nizamuddin Auliya, p. 312
  286. al-Ansari, p. 27
  287. Luke, p. 31
  288. Adapted from Onder, pp. 5, 49-52, 88
  289. Rumi, Mathnawi V:185
  290. Adapted from Four Sufi Classics, p. 205
  291. Rumi, Mathnawi VI 719
  292. Sa'di, p. 200
  293. Buitelaar, pp. 73-4, 136, 139
  294. Rumi, Mathnawi IV:2089
  295. Rumi, Divan-I Kebir, Meter 1, p. 190
  296. Knappert, p. 366, adapted
  297. Rumi, Mathnawi III:24-28
  298. Buitelaar, p. 57; Marks (1994), p. 226; Dagher
  299. Rumi, Birdsong, p. 50
  300. Nizamuddin Auliya, p. 319
  301. Rumi, Mathnawi V:718
  302. Nizami, pp. 64-5
  303. Nizami, p. 66; Auliya, p. 211
  304. Nizami, p. 65; Auliya
  305. Nizami, p. 58
  306. Bhajjan, p. 74
  307. Nizami, p. 66
  308. Nizamuddin Auliya, p. 169; Nizami, p. 134
  309. Muslim Shrines in India, p. 120
  310. Rumi, Open Secret, p. 70
  311. Rumi, Mathnawi VI:902
  312. Montagne, p. 322
  313. Rumi, quoted in Schimmel (1978)
  314. Rumi, Mathnawi III:3462
  315. Rumi, translated by Amer Latif and Kathleen Seidel
  316. Bhajjan
  317. Wilson, Kings of Love, pp. 80-86
  318. Rumi, Divan-I Kebir, Meter 1, p. 51
  319. Tannahill, p. 167
  320. Shaida, p. 290
  321. Wilson, p. 1
  322. Shaida, p. 290
  323. Algar (1992), p. 299
  324. Smith, p. 405
  325. Schimmel (1993), pp. 144, 429 (n.60)
  326. Rumi, Mathnawi II:514-584
  327. Geijbels, pp. 12, 14
  328. Rumi, Signs of the Unseen, p. 93
  329. Rumi, Mathnawi V:2143-50
  330. Rumi, Mathnawi V:2529-30
  331. Buitelaar, p. 58
  332. American Women's Association, p. 90; der Haroutunian (1984), p. 45
  333. Bukhari 65:299, 336
  334. Rumi, Like This!, p. 38
  335. Rumi, Divan-I Kebir, Meter 2
  336. Rumi, Divan-I Kebir, p. 13
  337. Rumi, Mathnawi II:2428
  338. Smith, pp. 403-4
  339. Halici, p. 104
  340. Mohammed Ghanoonparvar, personal communication
  341. Shaida, p. 281
  342. Adapted from Krishna, p. 95
  343. der Haroutunian (1984), p. 81
  344. Smith, p. 404
  345. Rumi, Mathnawi V:2476
  346. Geijbels, p. 19
  347. Bhajjan, p. 74
  348. Bukhari 1:1
  349. Salah, p. 30
  350. Quoted in Buitelaar, p. 28
  351. Adnan Sarhan, personal communication
  352. Buitelaar, p. 58
  353. McChesney, p. 131
  354. Zeldin, p. 1
  355. Cem Williford, personal communication
  356. Zubaida (1990), p. 224
  357. Buitelaar, p. 58
  358. Zubaida (1990), p. 224
  359. Zubaida (1990), p. 224
  360. Shaida, p. 25
  361. Trix, p. 10
  362. Visser, p. 30
  363. Rumi, Mathnawi I:2022
  364. Rumi, Mathnawi V:1965-6
  365. Rumi, Mathnawi I:1979
  366. Rumi, Mathnawi 1801-3, translated by Amer Latif and Kathleen Seidel
  367. Wilson, Pirate Utopias, pp. 179-180
  368. Wilson, Pirate Utopias, pp. 179-180
  369. Gonul Cengiz, personal communication
  370. Wolfert (1994), p. 367
  371. And, p. 245; Baboian, p. 123; Atiyeh, p. 45; Farah, p. 131
  372. Faroqhi (1984), p. 213
  373. Bukhari and Muslim, in Mishkat, p. 437
  374. Geijbels, p. 8
  375. Algar (1991), p. _____
  376. Muslim, in Mishkat, p. 434
  377. Geijbels, pp. 5-8; Momen, pp. 240-243
  378. Schimmel (1994), p. 71; Schubel, p. 125
  379. Trix, p. 93
  380. Evliya v. 2, p. 138
  381. Geertz, pp. 77-78
  382. Firth, pp. 186-7
  383. Marçais, p. 705
  384. Momen, p. 57; Buitelaar, p. 137-38, 153-4
  385. Buitelaar, pp. 137-140, 153-55
  386. Marçais, p. 705
  387. Mohammed Ghanoonparvar, personal communication
  388. Geijbels, p. 8; Amer Latif, personal communication
  389. "Hosay," p. 1
  390. Nunley, p. 125
  391. Cem Williford, personal communication
  392. Faroqhi (1984), p. 214
  393. Frances Trix, personal communication
  394. Birge, pp. 169-70
  395. In the same manner, the kazan belonging to the tekke of Hajji Bektash in Turkey is kept at the Ethnographical Museum in Ankara (And, p. 246).
  396. Frances Trix, personal communication
  397. Eren, p. 12
  398. Schimmel (1984), p. 100
  399. Shushud, p. 140
  400. Rumi, Mathnawi V:3350
  401. Hafiz, p. 83
  402. Zubaida, p. 224; Saleh, p. 30
  403. Rumi, translated by Amer Latif and Kathleen Seidel
  404. Bukhari 65:514
  405. Rumi, Mathnawi I:672
  406. Bhajjan, p. 94
  407. Rumi, Mathnawi VI:18-21
  408. Ozak, pp. 91-2
  409. Adapted from Shah (1970), pp. 88-89
  410. Shushud, p. 94
  411. Nizamuddin Auliya, p. 93
  412. Rumi, Mathnawi IV:752-3
  413. Tikku, pp. 203-4
  414. Van Arendonk, p. 449
  415. Trimingham, p. 199, f.2
  416. van Arendonk, p. 450
  417. Roden, p. 75
  418. Hattox, Chapter 2; Roden, p. 75; Schimmel (1975), p. 254
  419. Ukers p. 11
  420. van Arendonk, p. 450
  421. van Arendonk, p. 450
  422. Haeri, p. 109
  423. Jaziri, in Hattox, p. 29
  424. Ibn 'Abd al-Ghaffar, in Hattox, p. 74
  425. van Arendonk, p. 450
  426. Hale, p. 176
  427. Hattox, p. 13
  428. Hattox, p. 97
  429. Hattox, pp. 77-79
  430. Evliya, 1:2, pp. 139-140
  431. van Arendonk, p. 451
  432. Evliya, 1:2, p. 137
  433. Hattox, pp. 40-102
  434. Evliya, v. 2, p. 13
  435. Hattox, pp. 104-5, 122
  436. Martin, p. 288
  437. Evliya Efendi, 1:2, p. 20
  438. Ukers, p. 17-18; Matthee, pp. 24-30
  439. Matthee, p. 25
  440. Quoted in and translated by Matthee, p. 24
  441. Braudel, p. 256
  442. Burrill, p. 102
  443. Tikku, p. 70
  444. Muslim
  445. Rumi, Divan i-Kebir, author's version
  446. Evliya Efendi, 1:2, p. 99
  447. Jamnia, pp. 33-34
  448. Rumi, Mathnawi VI:3669-70
  449. Rumi, Mathnawi V:185
  450. Evliya Efendi
  451. Aflaki
  452. Aflaki
  453. Bawa Muhaiyaddeen
  454. Rumi, translated by Amer Latif and Kathleen Seidel
  455. Ezekiel, p. 386, adapted
  456. Nurbaksh (1978), p 77
  457. Rumi, Mathnawi V:2526
  458. Rumi, Mathnawi VI:760
  459. Nancy O'Brien, personal communication
  460. www.murshid.org/Khan/VIII/VIII31_40pt2.htm
  461. Birge, p. 36
  462. Knappert, p. 323, adapted
  463. Bhajjan
  464. Ibn Batuta, 1984, p. 8
  465. Thanks to Hilal and Rashid Patch for this
  466. Lewis, p. 24
  467. al-Ansari, p. 11
  468. Robinson, pp. 86-87; Bennett, pp. 196-199
  469. Bennett, pp. 196-199

back